ISSN: 0304-128X ISSN: 2233-9558
Copyright © 2024 KICHE. All rights reserved


Conflict of Interest
In relation to this article, we declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Publication history
Received June 13, 2023
Revised August 9, 2023
Accepted July 10, 2023
articles This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright © KIChE. All rights reserved.

Most Cited

Effect of Operational Parameters on the Products from Catalytic Pyrolysis of Date Seeds, Wheat Straw, and Corn Cob in Fixed Bed Reactor

NFC-Institute of Engineering & Fertilizer Research 1University of the Punjab
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, November 2023, 61(4), 591-597(7), 10.9713/kcer.2023.61.4.591 Epub 1 November 2023
downloadDownload PDF


Pakistan depends heavily on imports for its fuel requirements. In this experiment, catalytic pyrolysis of a

blend of feedstock’s consisting of date seed, wheat straw, and corn cob was conducted in a fixed bed reactor to produce

oil that can be used as an alternative fuel. The main focus was to emphasize the outcome of important variables on the

produced oil. The effects of operating conditions on the yield of bio-oil were studied by changing temperature (350-

500℃), heating rate (10, 15, 20℃/min), and particle size (1, 2, 3 mm). Moreover, ZnO was used as a catalyst in the

process. First, the thermal degradation of the feedstock was investigated by TGA and DTG analysis at 10℃/min of

different particle sizes of 1, 2, and 3mm from a temperature range of 0 to 1000℃. The optimum temperature was found

to be 450℃ for maximum degradation, and the oil yield was indicated to be around 37%. It was deduced from the

experiment that the maximum production of bio-oil was 32.21% at a temperature of 450℃, a particle size of 1mm, and

a heating rate of 15℃/min. When using the catalyst under the same operating conditions, the bio-oil production

increased to 41.05%. The heating value of the produced oil was 22 MJ/kg compared to low-quality biodiesel oil, which

could be used as a fuel.


1. Kanwal, S., Mehran, M. T., Hassan, M., Anwar, M., Naqvi, S. R.
and Khoja, A. H., An Integrated Future Approach for the Energy
Security of Pakistan: Replacement of Fossil Fuels with Syngas
for Better Environment and Socio-economic Development,”
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 156, 111978(2022).
2. Waqas, M., Hashim, S., Humphries, U. W., Ahmad, S., Noor, R.,
Shoaib, M., Naseem, A., Hlaing, P. T. and Lin, H. A., “Composting
Processes for Agricultural Waste Management: A Comprehensive
Review,” Processes, 11, 731(2023).
3. Sohoo, I., Ritzkowski, M., Guo, J., Sohoo, K. and Kuchta, K.,
“Municipal Solid Waste Management Through Sustainable Landfilling:
in View of the Situation in Karachi, Pakistan,” International
J. Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, 773(2022).
4. Al-Dailami, A., Ahmad, I., Kamyab, H., Abdullah, N., Koji, I.,
Ashokkumar, V. and Zabara, B., Sustainable Solid Waste Management
in Yemen: Environmental, Social Aspects, and Challenges,”
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1-27(2022).
5. Al-Otaibi, J. S., Abdel-Rahman, M. A., Almuqrin, A. H., El-Gogary,
T. M., Mahmoud, M. A. M. and El-Nahas, A. M., “Thermokinetic
Theoretical Studies on Pyrolysis of Dimethoxymethane
Fuel Additive,” Fuel, 290, 119970(2021).
6. Fadhil, A. B. and Kareem, B. A., “Co-pyrolysis of Mixed Date
Pits and Olive Stones: Identification of Bio-oil and the Production
of Activated Carbon from Bio-char,” J. Analytical. Applied. Pyrolysis,
158, 05249(2021).
7. Ma, Y., Li, H., Yang, H., Zhu, Y., Zhao, L. and Li, M., “Effects
of Solid Acid and Base Catalysts on Pyrolysis of Rice Straw and
Wheat Straw Biomass for Hydrocarbon Production,” J. Energy
Institute, 101, 140-148(2022).
8. Masood, M., Ali, N., Ashraf, M. and Shoaib, M., “Pyrolysis and
Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of Walnut Shells and
Indigenous Coal,” J. Chemistry Technologies, 30, 121-131(2022).
9. Ayyadurai, S. and Arunachalam, K. D., “Experimental Investigations
on Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolytic Oil Production from Flash
Pyrolysis Using a Rotary Screw Reactor,” Biofuels, Bioproducts
and Biorefining, 16, 576-586(2022).
10. Ahmad, B., Anwar, M., Badar, H., Mehdi, M. and Tanwir, F.,
“Analyzing Export Competitiveness of Major Fruits and Vegetables
of Pakistan: An Application of Revealed Comparative Advantage
Indices,” Pakistan J. Agricultural Sciences, 58, (2021).
11. Shalini, S. S., Palanivelu, K., Ramachandran, A. and Raghavan,
V., “Biochar from Biomass Waste as a Renewable Carbon Material
for Climate Change Mitigation in Reducing Greenhouse Gas
Emissions; A Review,” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 11,
12. Masood, H. M., Ali, N., Iqbal, T. and Ashraf, M., “Pyrolysis of
Coal for Fuel Production: A Review of the Effect of Various
Parameters on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Coal,” Iranian J. Chemistry
and Chemical Engineering (2022).
13. Masood, H. M., Ali, N., Iqbal, T. and Ashraf, M., “Pyrolysis of
Coal for Fuel Production: A Review of the Effect of Various
Parameters on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Coal,” Iranian J. Chemistry
and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE) (2022).
14. Masood, H. M., Ali, N., Iqbal, T. and Zafar, M., “Slow Pyrolysis
of Indigenous Makarwal Coal: Characterization, Kinetic Study,
and Calculation of Design Parameters,” Energy Sources, Part A:
Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 44, 2938-2951

The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers. F5, 119, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, 233 Spring Street Seoul 02856, South Korea.
Phone No. +82-2-458-3078FAX No. +82-507-804-0669E-mail :

Copyright (C) KICHE.all rights reserved.

- Korean Chemical Engineering Research 상단으로