ISSN: 0304-128X ISSN: 2233-9558
Copyright © 2024 KICHE. All rights reserved


Conflict of Interest
In relation to this article, we declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Publication history
Received August 29, 2022
Revised November 10, 2022
Accepted November 15, 2022
The authors acknowledge the profound financial support from TNB Research Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia through Fundamental Research Grant Scheme PV035-2021.
articles This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright © KIChE. All rights reserved.

Most Cited

Experimental Assessment of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology

1Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC), Level 4, Wisma R&D, University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Baharu, 59990, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 3TNB Research Sdn.Bhd., No 1, Lorong Ayer Itam, Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000, Kajang Selangor 4Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 5Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia,
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, May 2023, 61(2), 278-286(9), 10.9713/kcer.2023.61.2.278 Epub 31 May 2023
downloadDownload PDF


The present work evaluated the production of biohydrogen under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions through dark fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in batch mode using the design of experiment methodology. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the influence of the two significant parameters, POME concentration as substrate (5, 12.5, and 20 g/l), and volumetric substrate to inoculum ratio (1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2, v/v.%), with inoculum concentration of 14.3 g VSS/l. All the experiments were analyzed at 37 ℃ and 55 ℃ at an incubation time of 24 h. The highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, hydrogen content (H2%), and hydrogen yield (HY) at a substrate concentration of 12.5 g COD/l and S:I ratio of 1:1.5 in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions were obtained (27.3, 24.2%), (57.92, 66.24%), and (6.43, 12.27 ml H2/g CODrem), respectively. The results show that thermophilic temperature in terms of COD removal was more effective for higher COD concentrations than for lower concentrations. Optimum parameters projected by RSM with S:I ratio of 1:1.6 and POME concentration of 14.3 g COD/l showed higher results in both temperatures. It is recognized how RSM and optimization processes can predict and affect the process performance under different operational conditions.


1. Akhbari, A., Chuen, O. C. and Ibrahim, S., “Start-up Study of Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Lab-scale Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Fixed-film Reactor,” Int. J.Hydrogen. Energy, 12, 125 (2020).
2. Madaki, Y. S. and Seng, L., “Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) from Malaysia Palm Oil Mills: Waste or Resource,” International J.Sci. Environ Technol., 2, 1138-55(2013).
3. Akhbari, A., Chuen, O. C., Zinatizadeh, A. and Ibrahim, S.,“Start-up Study on Biohydrogen from Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Pilot-Scale Reactor,” Clean Soil-Air Water, 48, 7-8(2020).
4. Akhbari, A., Kutty, P. K., Chuen, O. C. and Ibrahim, S., “A Study of Palm Oil Mill Processing and Environmental Assessment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment,” Environmental Engineering Research, 25, 212-221(2019).
5. Wong, Y. M., Wu, T. Y. and Juan, J. C., “A Review of Sustainable Hydrogen Production Using Seed Sludge Via Dark Fermentation,” Renew Sustain Energy Rev., 34, 471-82(2014).
6. Alibardi, L. and Cossu, R., “Effects of Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipid Content of Organic Waste on Hydrogen Production and Fermentation Products,” Waste Management, 47, 69-77(2016).
7. Akutsu, Y., Li, Y.-Y., Harada, H. and Yu, H.-Q., “Effects of Temperature and Substrate Concentration on Biological Hydrogen Production from Starch,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 34, 2558-2566(2009).
8. Akhbari, A., Zinatizadeh, A., Mohammad, P., Syirat, Z. and Ibrahim, S., “Effect of Operational Variables on Biological Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Dark Fermentation Using Response Surface Methodology,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 137, 101-113(2019).
9. Akhbari, A., Zinatizadeh, A., Mohammadi, P., Irandoust, M. and Mansouri, Y., “Process Modeling and Analysis of Biological Nutrients Removal in An Integrated RBC-AS System Using Response Surface Methodology,” Chemical Engineering J., 168, 269-279(2011).
10. Alma, T., Francisco, V., Jorge, A., Elías, R. and Hugo, O., “Comparative Evaluation of the Mesophilic and Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production at Optimized Conditions Using Tequila Vinasses as Substrate,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 45, 11000-11010(2020).
11. Association, A. P. H., Association, A. W. W., Federation, W. P.
C. and Federation, W. E., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association (1915).
12. Norfadilah, N., Raheem, A., Harun, R. and Ahmadun, F., “Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME): a Preliminary Study,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 41, 11960-4(2016).
13. Mohammadi, P., Ibrahim, S. and Annuar, M., Effects of Biomass,COD and Bicarbonate Concentrations on Fermentative Hydrogen Production from POME by Granulated Sludge in Batch Culture, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37, 17801-8(2012).
14. Oh, Y.-K., Seol, E.-H., Kim, J. R. and Park, S., “Fermentative Biohydrogen Production by a New Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Citrobacter sp. Y19, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 28, 1353-9(2003).
15. Chong, M.-L., Sabaratnam, V., Shirai, Y. and Hassan, M. A., “Biohydrogen Production from Biomass and Industrial Wastes by Dark
Fermentation,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 34, 3277-87(2009).

The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers. F5, 119, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, 233 Spring Street Seoul 02856, South Korea.
Phone No. +82-2-458-3078FAX No. +82-507-804-0669E-mail :

Copyright (C) KICHE.all rights reserved.

- Korean Chemical Engineering Research 상단으로